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Linux查看硬盘信息方法总结归纳

Linux查看硬盘信息方法总结归纳

Linux查看硬盘信息方法总结归纳

lsblk

lsblk命令用来查看接入到系统中的块设备,默认输出分区、大小、挂载点等信息,一目了然:

tlanyan@node1:~$ lsblk
sda 8:0 0 558.9G 0 disk
├─sda1 8:1 0 488M 0 part
├─sda2 8:2 0 1K 0 part
├─sda5 8:5 0 7.6G 0 part
└─sda6 8:6 0 550.8G 0 part /
sdb 8:16 0 558.9G 0 disk
├─sdb1 8:17 0 1K 0 part
└─sdb5 8:21 0 558.9G 0 part /journal
sdc 8:32 0 1.8T 0 disk /work
sr0 11:0 1 1024M 0 rom

df

df命令用来查看硬盘的使用情况,经常配合-h给出友好的输出:

tlanyan@node1:~$ df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev 24G 0 24G 0% /dev
tmpfs 4.8G 2.1M 4.8G 1% /run
/dev/sda6 542G 148G 366G 29% /
tmpfs 24G 0 24G 0% /dev/shm
tmpfs 5.0M 4.0K 5.0M 1% /run/lock
tmpfs 24G 0 24G 0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sdc 1.8T 1.2T 582G 67% /work
/dev/sdb5 551G 245G 278G 47% /journal
需要注意的是df只能输出已挂载的磁盘分区信息,不能显示未挂载的硬盘。

另一个相似的命令是du,用来显示占用的硬盘空间,例如统计当前目录下文件大小:du -sh *

fdisk

fdisk是常用的硬盘、分区操作工具,需要root权限执行,-l参数可以打印硬盘信息:

root@node1:~# fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sda: 558.9 GiB, 600127266816 bytes, 1172123568 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xdf3a7994

Device Boot Start End Sectors Size Id Type
/dev/sda1 * 2048 1001469 999422 488M 83 Linux
/dev/sda2 1001470 1172121599 1171120130 558.4G 5 Extended
/dev/sda5 1001472 17000447 15998976 7.6G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda6 17002496 1172121599 1155119104 550.8G 83 Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 558.9 GiB, 600127266816 bytes, 1172123568 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0006c4c0

Device Boot Start End Sectors Size Id Type
/dev/sdb1 63 1172118464 1172118402 558.9G 5 Extended
/dev/sdb5 126 1172118464 1172118339 558.9G 83 Linux

Disk /dev/sdc: 1.8 TiB, 2000398934016 bytes, 3907029168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x7af0ba03
fdisk不支持GPT分区,需要要到下文的parted查看。

parted

parted是一个分区操作工具,需要root权限,否则输出为空:

root@node1:~# parted -l
Model: HITACHI HUS156060VLS600 (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 600GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags:

Number Start End Size Type File system Flags
1 1049kB 513MB 512MB primary ext4 boot
2 513MB 600GB 600GB extended
5 513MB 8704MB 8191MB logical linux-swap(v1)
6 8705MB 600GB 591GB logical ext4

Model: HITACHI HUS156060VLS600 (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdb: 600GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags:

Number Start End Size Type File system Flags
1 32.3kB 600GB 600GB extended
5 64.5kB 600GB 600GB logical ext4

Model: SEAGATE ST2000NM0023 (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdc: 2000GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags:

Number Start End Size Type File system Flags

lsscsi

lsscsi可以打印SCSI硬盘信息,该命令在Ubuntu中默认没有安装:

tlanyan@node1:~$ lsscsi
[0:0:0:0] cd/dvd PLDS DVD+-RW DH-16ACS JD11 /dev/sr0
[6:0:0:0] disk HITACHI HUS156060VLS600 E516 /dev/sda
[6:0:1:0] disk HITACHI HUS156060VLS600 E516 /dev/sdb
[6:0:2:0] disk SEAGATE ST2000NM0023 0003 /dev/sdc

blkid

blkid命令可以打印块设备的信息:

tlanyan@node1:~$ blkid
/dev/sda6: UUID="93875607-7910-43d3-ac02-32200cfcea1a" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="df3a7994-06"
/dev/sda1: UUID="90cfad05-f84b-49fd-ac60-06c5d9c7382c" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="df3a7994-01"
/dev/sda5: UUID="66c522a8-b0eb-4a44-9ba9-2765b70eff28" TYPE="swap" PARTUUID="df3a7994-05"
/dev/sdb5: UUID="8a400f90-2390-4b5d-9fd2-58331c1230e2" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="0006c4c0-05"
/dev/sdc: LABEL="M-fM-^VM-0M-eM-^MM-7" UUID="8bd7100c-4120-4cf3-8d1e-268d4cf12bac" TYPE="ext4" PTUUID="7af0ba03" PTTYPE="dos"

lshw

lshw命令用来打印硬件的详细信息,打印硬盘信息需要root权限:

root@node1:~# lshw -class disk
*-disk:0

   description: SCSI Disk
   product: HUS156060VLS600
   vendor: HITACHI
   physical id: 0.0.0
   bus info: scsi@6:0.0.0
   logical name: /dev/sda
   version: E516
   serial: LXWMTVTM
   size: 558GiB (600GB)
   capacity: 690GiB (741GB)
   capabilities: 15000rpm partitioned partitioned:dos
   configuration: ansiversion=6 logicalsectorsize=512 sectorsize=512 signature=df3a7994

*-disk:1

   description: SCSI Disk
   product: HUS156060VLS600
   vendor: HITACHI
   physical id: 0.1.0
   bus info: scsi@6:0.1.0
   logical name: /dev/sdb
   version: E516
   serial: LXWMTWAM
   size: 558GiB (600GB)
   capacity: 690GiB (741GB)
   capabilities: 15000rpm partitioned partitioned:dos
   configuration: ansiversion=6 logicalsectorsize=512 sectorsize=512 signature=0006c4c0

*-cdrom

   description: DVD-RAM writer
   product: DVD+-RW DH-16ACS
   vendor: PLDS
   physical id: 0.0.0
   bus info: scsi@0:0.0.0
   logical name: /dev/cdrom
   logical name: /dev/cdrw
   logical name: /dev/dvd
   logical name: /dev/dvdrw
   logical name: /dev/sr0
   version: JD11
   capabilities: removable audio cd-r cd-rw dvd dvd-r dvd-ram
   configuration: ansiversion=5 status=nodisc
mount

mount常用来挂载硬盘、分区等,自然也就可以查看挂载信息:

tlanyan@node1:~$ mount
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
udev on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,nosuid,relatime,size=24697992k,nr_inodes=6174498,mode=755)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,gid=5,mode=620,ptmxmode=000)
tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,size=4944076k,mode=755)
/dev/sda6 on / type ext4 (rw,relatime,errors=remount-ro,data=ordered)
securityfs on /sys/kernel/security type securityfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
tmpfs on /run/lock type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,size=5120k)
tmpfs on /sys/fs/cgroup type tmpfs (ro,nosuid,nodev,noexec,mode=755)
/dev/sdc on /work type ext4 (rw,relatime,data=ordered)
/dev/sdb5 on /journal type ext4 (rw,relatime,data=ordered)

exportfs

exportfs命令用来查看NFS共享文件夹,需要root权限:

root@node1:~# exportfs -s
/work 192.168.1.12(rw,wdelay,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check,sec=sys,rw,secure,no_root_squash,no_all_squash)
/work 192.168.1.13(rw,wdelay,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check,sec=sys,rw,secure,no_root_squash,no_all_squash)
/opt 192.168.1.12(ro,wdelay,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check,sec=sys,ro,secure,no_root_squash,no_all_squash)
/opt 192.168.1.13(ro,wdelay,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check,sec=sys,ro,secure,no_root_squash,no_all_squash)

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